We study the relationship between polygyny and HIV infection using nationally representative survey data with linked serostatus information from 20 African countries.http://www.oakleysunglassesireland.nu Our results indicate that junior wives in polygynous unions are more likely to be HIV positive than spouses of monogamous men, but also that HIV prevalence is lower in populations with more polygyny. With these results in mind, we investigate four explanations for the contrasting individual- and ecological-level associations.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunglasses These relate to (1) the adverse selection of HIV-positive women into polygynous unions, (2) the sexual network structure characteristic of polygyny, (3) the relatively low coital frequency in conjugal dyads of polygynous marriages (coital dilution), oakley sunglasses ireland sale and (4) the restricted access to sexual partners for… younger men in populations where polygynous men presumably monopolize the women in their community (monopolizing polygynists).oakleysunglassesireland We find evidence for some of these mechanisms, and together they support the proposition that polygynous marriage systems impede the spread of HIV. We relate these results to the debate about partnership concurrency as a primary behavioral driver for the fast propagation of HIV in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa.
There is a lack of information on plant response to multifactor environmental variability including the interactive response to temperature and atmospheric humidity. oakleysunglassesireland These two factors are almost always confounded because saturated vapor pressure increases exponentially with temperature, and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) could have a large impact on plant growth. In this study using climate controlled mini-greenhouses, we examined the interacting influence of temperature and VPD on long-term growth of tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea Schreb),oakley sunglasses repair ireland a cool season grass. From past studies it was expected that growth of tall fescue would decline with warmer temperatures over the range of 18.5–27°C, but growth actually increased markedly with increasing temperature when VPD was held constant. In… contrast, growth declined in experiments where tall fescue was exposed to increasing VPD and temperature was held constant at 21°C.http://www.oakleysunglassesireland.nu The inhibited growth appears to be in response to a maximum transpiration rate that can be supported by the tall fescue plants. The sensitivity to VPD indicates that if VPD remains stable in future climates as it has in the past, growth of tall fescue could well be stimulated rather than decreased by global warming in temperate climate zones.
Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase catalyzes the oxidation and decarboxylation of glutaryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA and CO(2). Inherited defects in the protein cause glutaric acidemia type I, a fatal neurologic disease. Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase is the only member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family with a cationic residue, Arg-94, situated in the binding site of the acyl moiety of the substrate. Crystallographic investigations suggest that Arg-94 is within hydrogen bonding distance of the gamma-carboxylate of glutaryl-CoA.http://www.oakleysunglassesireland.nu Substitution of Arg-94 by glycine, a disease-causing mutation, and by glutamine, which is sterically more closely related to arginine, reduced k(cat) of the mutant dehydrogenases to 2-3% of k(cat) of the wild type enzyme. K(m) of these mutant dehydrogenases for glutaryl-CoA… Gln mutant dehydrogenase is unaffected, and the resulting enolate forms a charge transfer complex with the oxidized flavin.oakleysunglassesireland These experiments indicate that Arg-94 does not make a major contribution to glutaryl-CoA binding. However, the electric field of Arg-94 may stabilize the dianions resulting from abstraction of the alpha-proton of glutaryl-CoA and 3-thiaglutaryl-CoA,oakley sunglasses northern ireland both of which contain gamma-carboxylates. It is also possible that Arg-94 may orient glutaryl-CoA and 3-thiaglutaryl-CoA for abstraction of an alpha-proton.